Errata for Yale-G First Aid 6th Edition Paperback
(Apology from the author team; These have been corrected in the 6th-Ed Kindle version)
P139: ARDS: Lab diagnosis: (2) ABG reveals “PaO2 <100…” should be “PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg”.
P297 & 306: Chapter 6 Table 6-4 and HYQ answer 30 for GCD: “NNT–NBT is (-) in GCD; catalase test is not necessary or sufficient for Dx.
P421: Chapter 9 HYQ 12 D: “Helical CT angiography”. It is most sensitive in detecting suspected arterial injury and the best test option in this case.
2020 Yale-G’s Monthly Clinical Updates According to www.uptodate.com
(As of 2020-08-15, updated in the 6th-Ed Kindle version; can be emailed to Yale-G 6th edition buyers)
Chapter 1: Infectious Diseases
Special Viruses: Coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are important human and animal pathogens, accounting for 5-10% community-acquired URIs in adults and probably also playing a role in severe LRIs, particularly in immunocompromised patients and primarily in the winter. Virology: Medium-sized enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses as a family within the Nidovirales order, further classified into four genera (alpha, beta, gamma, delta), encoding 4-5 structural proteins, S, M, N, HE, and E; severe types: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, which causes COVID-19). Routes of transmission: Similar to that of rhinoviruses, via direct contact with infected secretions or large aerosol droplets. Immunity develops soon after infection but wanes gradually over time. Reinfection is common. Clinical manifestations: 1. Coronaviruses mostly cause respiratory symptoms (nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and cough) and influenza-like symptoms (fever, headache). 2. Severe types (2019-nCoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV): Typically with pneumonia–fever, cough, dyspnea, and bilateral infiltrates on chest imaging, and sometimes enterocolitis (diarrhea), particularly in immunocompromised hosts (HIV+, elders, children). 3. Most community-acquired coronavirus infections are diagnosed clinically, although RT-PCR applied to respiratory secretions is the diagnostic test of choice.
Treatment: 1. Mainly consists of ensuring appropriate infection control and supportive care for sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. 2. In study: Chloroquine showed activity against the SARS-CoV, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-OC43 and remdesivir against 2019-nCoV.
Prevention: 1. For most coronaviruses: The same as for rhinovirus infections, which consist of handwashing and the careful disposal of materials infected with nasal sec retions. 2. For novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV: (1) Preventing exposure by diligent hand washing, respiratory hygiene, and avoiding close contact with live or dead animals and ill individuals. (2) Infection control for suspected or confirmed cases: Wear a medical mask to contain their respiratory secretions and seek medical attention; standard contact and airborne precautions, with eye protection.
Hepatitis C: 8-week glecaprevir-pibrentasvir is recommended for chronic HCV infection in treatment-naive patients. In addition to the new broad one-time HCV screening (17-79 y/a), a repeated screening in individuals with ongoing risk factors is suggested.
New: Lefamulin is active against many common community-acquired pneumonia pathogens, including S. pneumoniae, Hib, M. catarrhalis, S. aureus, and atypical pathogens.
New: Cefiderocol is a novel parenteral cephalosporin that has activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenemase-producing organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to other beta-lactams. It’s reserved for infections for which there are no alternative options.
New: Novel macrolide fidaxomicin is reserved for treating the second or greater recurrence of C. difficile infection in children.
Vitamin C is not beneficial in adults with sepsis and ARDS..
Chapter 2: CVD
AF: Catheter ablation is recommended to some drug-refractory, paroxysmal AF to decrease symptom burden. In study: Renal nerve denervation has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy to catheter ablation in hypertensive patients with AF. Alcohol abstinence lowers the risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation among regular drinkers.
VF: For nonshockable rhythms, epinephrine is given as soon as feasible during CPR, while for shockable rhythms epinephrine is given after initial defibrillation attempts are unsuccessful. Avoid vasopressin use.
All patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) should receive a P2Y12 inhibitor. For patients undergoing an invasive approach, either prasugrel or ticagrelor
has been preferred to clopidogrel. Long-term antithrombotic therapy in patients with stable CAD and AF has newly been modified as either anticoagulant (AC)
monotherapy or AC plus a single antiplatelet agent.
Long-term antithrombotic therapy (rivaroxaban +/- aspirin) is recommended for patients with AF and stable CAD. Ticagrelor plus aspirin is recommended for some patients with CAD and diabetes.
VTE (venous thromboembolism): LMW heparin or oral anticoagulant edoxaban is the first-line anticoagulants in patients with cancer-associated VTE (venous thromboembolism).
Dosing of warfarin for VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty should continue to target an INR of 2.5.
Chapter 3: Resp. Disorders
Asthma: Benralizumab is an IL-5 receptor antibody that is used as add-on therapy for patients with severe asthma and high blood eosinophil counts.
Recombinant GM-CSF is still reserved for patients who cannot undergo, or who have failed, whole lung lavage.
Pulmonary embolism (PE): PE response teams (PERT, with specialists from vascular surgery, critical care, interventional radiology, emergency medicine, cardiac surgery, and cardiology) are being increasingly used in management of patients with intermediate and high-risk PE.
Although high-sensitivity D-dimer testing is preferred, protocols that use D-dimer levels adjusted for pretest probability may be an alternative to unadjusted D-dimer in patients with a low pretest probability for PE.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Newly approved capmatinib is for advanced NSCLC associated with a MET mutation, and selpercatinib for those with advanced RET fusion-positive.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Tx: CFTR modulator therapy (elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor) is recommended for patients ≥12 years with the F508del variant.
Vitamin E acetate has been implicated in the development of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury.
Chapter 4: Digestive and Nutritional Disorders
Comparison of Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC):
Common: They are two major types of chronic cholestatic liver disease, with fatigue, pruritus, obstructive jaundice, similar biochemical tests of copper metabolism, overlapped histology (which is not diagnostic), destructive cholangitis, and both ultimately result in cirrhosis and hepatic failure. (1) PBC: Mainly in middle-aged women, with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, hyperpigmentation, and high titer of antimitochondrial Ab (which is negative for PSC). (2) PSC: Primarily in middle-aged men, with chronic ulcerative colitis (80%), irregular intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts, and anti-centromere Ab (+).
CRC: Patients with colorectal adenomas at high risk for subsequent colorectal cancer (CRC) (≥3 adenomas, villous type with high-grade dysplasia, or ≥10 mm in diameter) are advised short follow-up intervals for CRC surveillance.
UC and CRC: Patients with extensive colitis (not proctitis or left-sided colitis) have increased CRC risk.
Eradication of H. pylori: adding bismuth to clarithromycin-based triple therapy for patients with risk factors for macrolide resistance.
Thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry are bedside tests recommended for patients with cirrhosis and bleeding.
Pancreatic cancer: Screening for patients at risk for hereditary pancreatic cancer (PC): Individuals with mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene and one first-degree relative with PC can be screened with endoscopic ultrasound and/or MRI/magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
Olaparib is recommended for BRCA-mutated advanced pancreatic cancer after 16 weeks of initial platinum-containing therapy.
HCC (unresectable): New first-line therapy is a TKI (sorafenib or sunitinib) or immune checkpoint inhibitor atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, +/- doxorubicin. Monitor kidney toxicity for these drugs.
UC: Ustekinumab (-umab) anti-interleukin 12/23 antibody, is newly approved for the treatment of UC.
Crohn disease: The combination of partial enteral nutrition with the specific Crohn disease exclusion diet is a valuable alternative to exclusive enteral nutrition for induction of remission.
Obesity: Lorcaserin, a 5HT2C agonist that can reduce food intake, has been discontinued in the treatment of obesity due to increased malignancies (including colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancers).
Diet and cancer deaths: A low-fat diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and grains experienced fewer deaths resulted from many types of cancer.
Note that H2-blockers (-tidines) are no longer recommended due to the associated carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST):
GIST is a rare type of tumor that occurs in the GI tract, mostly in the stomach (50%) or small intestine. As a sarcoma, it’s the #1 common in the GI tract. It is considered to grow from specialized cells in the GI tract called interstitial cells of Cajal, associated with high rates of malignant transformation.
Clinical features and diagnosis: Most GISTs are asymptomatic. Nausea, early satiety, bloating, weight loss, and signs of anemia may develop, depending on the location, size, and pattern of growth of the tumor. They are best diagnosed by CT scan and mostly positive staining for CD117 (C-Kit), CD34, and/or DOG-1.
Treatment: Approaches include resection of primary low-risk tumors, resection of high-risk primary or metastatic tumors with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib for 12 months, or if the tumor is unresectable, neoadjuvant imatinib followed by resection. Radiofrequency ablation has shown to be effective when surgery is not suitable. Newer therapies of ipilimumab, nivolumab, and endoscopic ultrasound alcohol ablation have shown promising results. Avapritinib or ripretinib (new TKI) is recommended for advanced unresectable or metastatic GIST with PDGFRA mutations.
Anal cancer is uncommon and more similar to a genital cancer than it is to a GI malignancy by etiology. By histology, it is divided into SCC (#1 common) and adenocarcinoma. Anal cancer (particularly SCC among women) has increased fast over the last 30 years and may surpass cervical cancer to become the leading HPV-linked cancer in older women. A higher incidence has been associated with HPV/HIV infection, multiple sexual partners, genital warts, receptive anal intercourse, and cigarette smoking. SCCs that arise in the rectum are treated as anal canal SCCs.
Clinical features and diagnosis: 1. Bleeding (#1) and itching (often mistaken as hemorrhoids). Later on, patients may develop focal pain or pressure, unusual discharges, and lump near the anus, and changes in bowel habits. 2. Diagnosis is made by a routine digital rectal exam, anoscopy/proctoscopy plus biopsy, +/- endorectal ultrasound.
Treatment: Anal cancer is primarily treated with a combination of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery—especially for patients failing the above therapy or for true perianal skin cancers.
Chapter 5: Endocrinology
Liraglutide can be added as a second agent for type-2 DM patients who fail monotherapy with metformin or as a third agent for those who fail combination therapy with metformin and insulin.
Metformin is suggested to prevent type 2 DM in high-risk patients in whom lifestyle interventions fail to improve glycemic indices.
Metabolic (bariatric) surgery improves glucose control in obese patients with type 2 DM and also reduce diabetes-related complications, such as CVD.
Teprotumumab, an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, can be used for Graves’ orbitopathy if corticosteroids are not effective. Subclinical hypothyroidism should not be routinely treated (with T4) in older adults with TSH <10 mU/L.
Chapter 6: Hematology & Immunology
Anticoagulants: Apixaban is preferred to warfarin for atrial fibrillation with osteoporosis because it lowers the risk of fracture. Rivaroxaban is inferior to warfarin for antiphospholipid syndrome.
Cancer-associated VTE: LMW heparin or oral edoxaban is the first-line anticoagulant prophylaxis.
NH-Lymphoma Tx: New suggestion is four cycles of R(rituximab)-CHOP for limited stage (stage I or II) diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) without adverse features. New suggestions: selinexor is for patients with ≥2 relapses of DLBCL, and tafasitamab plus lenalidomide is for patients with r/r DLBCL who are not eligible for autologous HCT.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T (NK) immunotherapy is newly suggested for refractory lymphoid malignancies, with less toxicity than CAR-T therapy. Polatuzumab + bendamustine + rituximab (PBR) is an alternative to CAR-T, allogeneic HCT, etc. for multiply relapsed diffuse large B-C NHL.
Refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (r/r cHL) is responsive to immune checkpoint inhibition with pembrolizumab or nivolumab, including those previously treated with brentuximab vedotin or autologous transplantation.
Mantle cell lymphoma: Induction therapy is bendamustine + rituximab or other conventional chemoimmunotherapy rather than more intensive approaches. CAR-T cell therapy is for refractory mantle cell lymphoma.
AML: Gilteritinib is a new alternative to intensive chemotherapy for patients with FLT3-mutated r/r AML.
Oral decitabine plus cedazuridine is suggested for MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Multiple myeloma (MM): Levofloxacin prophylaxis is suggested for patients with newly diagnosed MM during the first three months of treatment. For relapsed MM: Isatuximab is combined with previously used therapies, including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor, adding to pomalidomide plus dexamethasone. Later on, SC saratumumab-hyaluronidase rather than IV daratumumab is suggested.
Transplantation: As the transplant waitlist continues to grow, there may be an increasing need of HIV-positive to HIV-positive transplants.
Porphyria is a group of disorders (mostly inherited) caused by an overaccumulation of porphyrin, which results in hemoglobin and neurovisceral dysfunctions, and skin lesions.
Clinical types, features, and diagnosis: I. Acute porphyrias: 1. Acute intermittent porphyria: Increased porphobilinogen (PBG) causes attacks of abdominal pain (90%), neurologic dysfunction (tetraparesis, limb pain and weakness), psychosis, and constipation, but no rash. Discolored urine is common. 2. ALA (aminolevulinic acid) dehydratase deficiency porphyria (Doss porphyria): Sensorimotor neuropathy and cutaneous photosensitivity. 3. Hereditary coproporphyria: Abdominal pain, constipation, neuropathies, and skin rash. 4. Variegate porphyria: Cutaneous photosensitivity and neuropathies. II. Chronic porphyrias: 1. Erythropoietic porphyria: Deficient uroporphyrinogen III synthase leads to cutaneous photosensitivity characterized by blisters, erosions, and scarring of light-exposed skin. Hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, and osseous fragility may occur. 2. Cutaneous porphyrias–porphyria cutanea tarda: Skin fragility, photosensitivity, and blistering; the liver and nervous system may or may not be involved. III. Lab diagnosis: Significantly increased ALA and PBG levels in urine have 100% specificity for most acute porphyrias. Normal PBG levels in urine can exclude acute porphyria.
Treatment: 1. Acute episodes: Parenteral narcotics are indicated for pain relief. Hemin (plasma-derived intravenous heme) is the definitive treatment and mainstay of management. 2. Avoidance of sunlight is the key in treating cutaneous porphyrias. Afamelanotide may permit increased duration of sun exposure in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Chapter 7: Renal & UG
Membranous nephropathy (MN): Rituximab is a first-line therapy in patients with high or moderate risk of progressive disease and requiring immunosuppressive therapy.
Diabetes Insipidus (DI): Arginine-stimulated plasma copeptin assays are newly used to diagnose central DI and primary polydipsia, often alleviating the need for water restriction, hypertonic saline, and exogenous desmopressin.
Prostate cancer: Enzalutamide (new androgen blocker) is available for metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Cabazitaxel, despite its great toxicity, is suggested as third-line agent for metastatic prostate cancer. Either early salvage RT or adjuvant RT is acceptable after radical prostatectomy for high-risk disease.
UG cancers: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab is suggested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma for long-term survival.
Enfortumab vedotin is suggested in locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Maintenance avelumab is recommended with other chemotherapy in advanced urothelial bladder cancer. Pyelocalyceal mitomycin is suggested for low-grade upper tract urothelial carcinomas.
Chapter 8: Rheumatology
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (upadacitinib, filgotinib) are new options for active, resistant RA and ankylosing spondylitis.
Graves’ orbitopathy: new therapy–teprotumumab, an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor.
Chapter 9: Neurology & Special Senses
Epilepsy: Cenobamate, a novel tetrazole alkyl carbamate derivative that inhibits Na-channels, provides a new treatment option for patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy.
A benzodiazepine plus either fosphenytoin, valproate, or levetiracetam is recommended as the initial treatment of generalized convulsive status epilepticus.
Migraine: Lasmiditan is a selective 5H1F receptor agonist that lacks vasoconstrictor activity, new therapy for patients with relative contraindications to triptans due to cardiovascular risk factors.
Stroke: New recommendation for cerebellar hemorrhages >3 cm in diameter is surgical evacuation.
TBI: Antifibrolytic agent tranexamic acid is newly recommended for moderate and severe acute traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Chapter 10: Dermatology
Minocycline foam is a new topical drug option for moderate to severe acne vulgaris.
Melanloma: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma has confirmed long-term survival. With sun-protective behavior, melanoma incidence is decreasing.
New: Tazemetostat is suggested in patients with locally advanced or metastatic epithelioid sarcoma (rare and aggressive) ineligible for complete surgical resection.
Psoriasis: New therapies for severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a TNF-alpha inhibitor (infliximab or adalimumab, golimumab) or IL-inhibitor (etanercept or ustekinumab) is effective. Ixekizumab is a newly approved monoclonal antibody against IL-17A. Clinical data support vigilance for signs of symptoms of malignancy in patients with psoriasis.
Chapter 11: GYH
Although combined CDK 4/6 and aromatase inhibition is an effective strategy in older adults with advanced receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, toxicities (myelosuppression, diarrhea, and increased creatinine) should be carefully monitored. SC trastuzumab and pertuzumab is newly recommended for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Whole breast irradiation is suggested for most early-stage breast cancers treated with lumpectomy. Accelerated partial breast irradiation can be an alternative for women ≥50 years old with small (≤2 cm), hormone receptor-positive, node-negative tumors.
Endocrine therapy is recommended for breast cancer prevention in high-risk postmenopausal women.
Uterine fibroids: Elagolix (oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist) in combination with estradiol and norethindrone is for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) due to uterine fibroids.
Chapter 12: OB
Table 12-6: Active labor can start after OS > 4cm, and 6cm is relatively more acceptable but not a strict number.
Table 12-7: Preeclampsia is a multisystem progressive disorder characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria, or of hypertension and significant end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria, in the last half of pregnancy or postpartum. Once a diagnosis of preeclampsia is established, testing for proteinuria is no longer diagnostic or prognostic. “proteinuria>5g/24hours” may only indicate the severity.
Mole: For partial moles, obtain a confirmatory hCG level one month after normalization; for complete moles, reduce monitoring from 6 to 3 months post-normalization.
Chapter 14: EM
Emergency treatment—critical care!
“A-B-C”: Breathing: …In mechanically ventilated adults with critical illness in ICU, intermittent sedative-analgesic medications (morphine, propofol, midazolam) are
Chapter 15: Surgery
Surgery and Geriatrics: Hemiarthroplasty is a suitable option for patients who sustain a displaced femoral neck fracture.
Chapter 16: Psychiatry
Depression: Both short-term and maintenance therapies with esketamine are beneficial for treatment-resistant depression.
Schizophrenia: Long-term antipsychotics may decrease long-term suicide mortality.
Narcolepsy: Pitolisant is a novel oral histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist used in narcolepsy patients with poor response or tolerate to other medications.
Chapter 17: Last Chapter
PEARLS—Table 17-9: Important Immunization Schedules for All (2020, USA)
Vaccine Birth 2M 4M 6M 12-15M 2Y 4-6Y 11-12Y Sum
HAV 1st 2nd (2-18Y) 2 doses
HBV 1st 2nd 3rd (6-12M) 3 doses
DTaP 1st 2nd 3rd 4th (15-18M) 5th + Td per 10Y
IPV 1st 2nd 3rd (6-18M) 4th 4 doses
Rotavirus 1st 2nd 2 doses
Hib 1st 2nd (3rd) (3-4th) 3-4 doses
MMR 1st 2nd 2 doses
Varicella 1st 2nd + Shingles at 60Y
Influenza 1st (IIV: 6-12Y; LAIV: >2Y (2nd dose) 1-2 doses annually
PCV 1st 2nd 3rd 4th PCV13+PPSV at 65Y
MCV (Men A, B) 1st Booster at 16Y
HPV 9-12Y starting: <15Y: 2 doses (0, 6-12M); >15Y or immunosuppression: 3 doses (0, 2, 6M).
Chapter 17 HYQ answer 22: No routine prostate cancer screening (including PSA) is recommended and answer “G” is still correct–PSA
screening among healthy men is not routinely done but should be indicated in a patient with two risk factors.
Errata-updates for Yale-G’s 5th Edition:
- P49: Malaria (five strains): Add one more strain (P. knowlesi) to the four strains:
- P65: Chapter 1 HYQs #44 Answer = “B” (oseltamivir).
- P129: ARDS: Lab: (2) ABG reveals “PaO2 <100…” should be “PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200 mmHg”.
- P279 & 286-288: Chapter 6 Table 6-4 and HYQ Answer 30 for GCD: NNT=NBT should be (-) in GCD, and catalase test is not necessary or sufficient for Dx.
- P388: Meniere Disease: Essentials of Dx: 1. “bilateral” (hearing loss) should be “unilateral.”
- P388: Essential Tremor (updated PEARLS): Heavy alcohol ingestion may be in the patient’s history, and small amount of alcohol can help alleviate symptoms shortly.
- P396: HYQ 12-D: Helical CT angiography.
- P437 update: “Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding” is no longer accredited and should be part of “Abnormal Uterine Bleeding”.
- P529 and 532: Methemoglobinemia Tx-Antidote: “…dapsone, local anesthetic agents, aniline dyes, and high nitrate levels …” should be removed.
- P647: Cause specific mortality rate = Deaths due to a specific cause per 100,000 person-year at risk for a population, usually in a specific geographic area.
- P87: Systemic Hypertension Table 2-5: Update:
All Chapters: many updates and 100 more HYQs have been added in the 6th edition (See above).
suggestions: selinexor is for patients with ≥2 relapses of DLBCL, and
tafasitamab plus lenalidomide is for patients with r/r DLBCL who are not
eligible for autologous HCT